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HTTP handler

Requests that are received by Pistache are handled by a special class called Http::Handler. This class declares a bunch of virtual methods that can be overriden to handle special events that occur on the socket and/or connection.

The onRequest() function must be overriden. This function is called whenever Pistache received data and correctly parsed it as an HTTP request.

virtual void onRequest(const Http::Request& request, Http::ResponseWriter response);

The first argument is an object of type Http::Request representing the request itself. It contains a bunch of informations including:

  • The resource associated to the request
  • The query parameters
  • The headers
  • The body of the request

The Request object gives a read-only access to these informations. You can access them through a couple of getters but can not modify them. An HTTP request is immutable.

Sending a response#

ResponseWriter is an object from which the final HTTP response is sent to the client. The onRequest() function does not return anything (void). Instead, the response is sent through the ResponseWriter class. This class provides a bunch of send() function overloads to send the response:

Async::Promise<ssize_t> send(Code code);

You can use this overload to send a response with an empty body and a given HTTP Code (e.g Http::Code::Ok)

Async::Promise<ssize_t> send(    Code code,    const std::string& body,    const Mime::MediaType &mime = Mime::MediaType());

This overload can be used to send a response with static, fixed-size content (body). A MIME type can also be specified, which will be sent through the Content-Type header.

template<size_t N>Async::Promise<ssize_t> send(    Code code,    const char (&arr)[N],    const Mime::MediaType& mime = Mime::MediaType());

This version can also be used to send a fixed-size response with a body except that it does not need to construct a string (no memory is allocated). The size of the content is directly deduced by the compiler. This version only works with raw string literals.

These functions are asynchronous, meaning that they do not return a plain old ssize_t value indicating the number of bytes being sent, but instead a Promise that will be fulfilled later on. See the next section for more details on asynchronous programming with Pistache.

Response streaming#

Sometimes, content that is to be sent back to the user can not be known in advance, thus the length can not be determined in advance. For that matter, the HTTP specification defines a special data-transfer mechanism called chunked encoding where data is sent in a series of chunks. This mechanism uses the Transfer-Encoding HTTP header in place of the Content-Length one.

To stream content, Pistache provides a special ResponseStream class. To get a ResponseStream from a ResponseWriter, call the stream() member function:

auto stream = response.stream(Http::Code::Ok);

To initate a stream, you have to pass the HTTP status code to the stream function (here Http::Code::Ok or HTTP 200). The ResponseStream class provides an iostream like interface that overloads the << operator.

stream << "PO"stream << "NG"

The first line will write a chunk of size 2 with the content PO to the stream's buffer. The second line will write a second chunk of size 2 with the content NG. To end the stream and flush the content, use the special ends marker:

stream << ends

The ends marker will write the last chunk of size 0 and send the final data over the network. To simply flush the stream's buffer without ending the stream, you can use the flush marker:

stream << flush
Headers writing

After starting a stream, headers become immutable. They must be written to the response before creating a ResponseStream:

response.headers()    .add<Header::Server>("lys")    .add<Header::ContentType>(MIME(Text, Plain));
auto stream = response.stream();stream << "PO" << "NG" << ends;

Static file serving#

In addition to text content serving, Pistache provides a way to serve static files through the Http::serveFile function:

if (request.resource() == "/doc" && request.method == Http::Method::Get) {    Http::serveFile(response, "README.md");}
Return value

serveFile also returns a Promise representing the total number of bytes being sent to the wire

Controlling timeout#

Sometimes, you might require to timeout after a certain amount of time. For example, if you are designing an HTTP API with soft real-time constraints, you will have a time constraint to send a response back to the client. That is why Pistache provides the ability to control the timeout on a per-request basis. To arm a timeout on a response, you can use the timeoutAfter() member function directly on the ResponseWriter object:

response.timeoutAfter(std::chrono::milliseconds(500));

This will trigger a timeout if a response has not been sent within 500 milliseconds. timeoutAfter accepts any kind of duration.

When a timeout triggers, the onTimeout() function from your handler will be called. By default, this method does nothing. If you want to handle your timeout properly, you should then override this function inside your own handler:

void onTimeout(const Http::Request& request, Http::ResponseWriter writer) {    request.send(Http::Code::No_Content);}

The Request object that is passed to the onTimeout is the exact same request that triggered the timeout. The ResponseWriter is a complete new writer object.

ResponseWriter state

Since the ResponseWriter object is a complete new object, state is not preserved with the ResponseWriter from the onRequest() callback, which means that you will have to write the complete response again, including headers and cookies.